Water Analysis

Welcome to the Department of Biotechnology’s Water Quality Analysis Service, where we are committed to ensuring safe and clean water for all. Our state-of-the-art laboratory, approved by the Kerala State Pollution Control Board, offers comprehensive water quality testing services to meet the diverse needs of our community.

Services Offered

At our Water Quality Analysis Service, we provide precise and reliable assessments of water quality parameters, including pH, TDS, hardness, salinity, conductivity, COD, and bacteriological parameters. Our team of experienced professionals utilizes advanced technology and scientific expertise to deliver accurate results.

Sample Collection and Submission

We offer convenient sample collection and submission procedures to streamline the testing process. Samples can be collected directly from various water sources, such as taps, wells, municipal water, or borewell water, and submitted to our laboratory during designated timings. Our friendly staff are available to assist with the submission process and ensure proper handling of samples.

Timings and Schedule

Our laboratory operates on a schedule that accommodates the testing of both basic parameters and bacteriological parameters. Samples can be submitted Monday to Saturday from 9 am to 3 pm for basic parameters, and Monday to Friday from 9 am to 2 pm for bacteriological parameters.

Result Reporting

Upon completion of analysis, results are promptly communicated to clients via email or WhatsApp. Our goal is to provide timely and actionable information to support informed decision-making regarding water quality management and remediation efforts.

Department of Biotechnology

St. Joseph’s College (Autonomous), Irinjalakuda, Kerala

Approved by the Kerala State Pollution Control Board

Drinking Water Quality Analysis

Name        :
Adress       :
Sample       :  Well/Borewell/Municipal water
Mobile No :
Email ID     :

Test Options



Tick (?) the choice

Basic Parameters

pH, TDS, Hardness, Salinity, Conductivity, Resistivity


Bacteriological parameter

Total Coliform


Complete Test

Basic Parameters- pH, TDS, Hardness, Salinity, Conductivity, Resistivity

Bacteriological parameter- Total Coliform

Confirmatory test-E. Coli, COD


Department of Biotechnology

St. Joseph’s College (Autonomous), Irinjalakuda, Kerala

Approved by the Kerala State Pollution Control Board

Drinking Water Quality Analysis

Name        : Sample ID     :
Adress       : Sample type :
Reg Date       :
                     Pin: Report Date :
Mobile No : Analyst          :
Email ID     : Verified         :

Water Quality Test Result


Observed Value

Acceptable Limit


6.5 to 8.5

TDS (ppm)

Up to 500


Up to 200

Salinity (ppm)

Conductivity (mS)

Resistivity (MOhm)

COD (mg/l)


Bacteriological parameter- Total Coliform


Bacteriological parameter- E. Coli (Confirmatory)


Department of Biotechnology has been approved as a C-grade commercial purpose category for the analysis of water and wastewater by the Kerala State Pollution Control Board. The approval number is PCB/LAB/C08/2023, valid until 10-08-2025.

The Water Quality Test results disclosed in this report pertain exclusively to the submitted water sample. It is imperative to note that all results are contingent upon the quality and integrity of the sample received and processed in our laboratory. The determination of physical parameters is conducted utilizing the Eutech PC 2700, a validated and calibrated instrumentation system for accurate measurements. The COD analysis is performed using standard reagents in the Shimadzu UV-Vis Spectrophotometer UV-1280, ensuring precision and reliability in the assessment. The evaluation of bacteriological parameters adheres strictly to established microbiological protocols, ensuring comprehensive and standardized analysis.

While our tests provide significant insights into water quality, the results are not intended for medicolegal purposes. The findings are aimed at aiding in understanding the quality of the submitted sample and should not be utilized for legal or medical determinations.

Understanding Water Quality

Water is a fundamental necessity for life, and its quality plays a pivotal role in human health and well-being. The assurance of safe drinking water is essential to prevent waterborne diseases and maintain overall health. The evaluation of water quality involves the assessment of several parameters that are crucial indicators of its suitability for consumption. Access to clean and safe drinking water is integral to sustaining life and reducing the risk of waterborne illnesses. Contaminated water, with its potential to carry harmful substances, poses severe health risks, leading to various diseases and health complications.

Parameters of water quality

In our meticulous assessments to evaluate water quality, several key parameters are examined to ensure the suitability of water for consumption:

  • pH: Measuring the water’s acidity or alkalinity on a scale from 0 to 14. Values beyond 6.5 to 8.5 may indicate potential corrosion or an unpleasant taste, impacting its palatability.
  • TDS (Total Dissolved Solids): Reflecting the overall concentration of dissolved substances in water. Elevated levels, exceeding the recommended limit of 500 parts per million (ppm) by BIS standards, might denote the presence of minerals, salts, or other impurities, influencing taste and health implications.
  • Hardness: Determining the mineral content, primarily calcium and magnesium, contributing to water hardness. Acceptable levels for drinking water are below 200 parts per million (ppm), affecting taste and potential scaling in pipes and appliances.
  • Salinity: Reflecting the salt content in water. Higher levels could cause a salty taste and are generally not recommended for drinking purposes due to taste and health impacts.
  • Conductivity and Resistivity: Indicating the water’s ability to conduct electricity and its resistance, showcasing the presence of dissolved ions.
  • COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand): Evaluating the organic pollutant levels in water, setting a benchmark of 200 milligrams per liter (mg/l) for safe drinking water.
  • Bacteriological Parameters: Including Total Coliform and E. Coli, acting as indicators of potential contamination, particularly fecal contamination. Safe drinking water ideally should exhibit zero presence of both Total Coliform and E. Coli to ensure its safety for consumption.

Understanding these parameters and their significance is critical in assessing and ensuring the safety and suitability of water for human consumption, indicating potential health risks and the need for corrective actions if these parameters deviate from the recommended limits.

Benchmarks and Acceptable Limits

The benchmarks for these parameters, as per the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), are crucial for evaluating the suitability of water for consumption:

Parameter Recommended Limits
pH 6.5 to 8.5
TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) Up to 500 ppm
Hardness Up to 200 ppm
Salinity As low as possible
Conductivity Lower values preferred
Resistivity Higher values preferred
COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) Below 200 mg/l
Total Coliform 0 (No presence)
E. Coli (Confirmatory) 0 (No presence)

Understanding these benchmarks is crucial in assessing the safety of water and ensuring its suitability for human consumption.

Health Risks and Impact

Water with a pH below 6.5 or above 8.5 may pose health risks. Acidic or alkaline water can potentially corrode pipes and affect taste. Prolonged consumption of water with extreme pH levels may cause gastrointestinal issues. Elevated TDS levels indicate higher mineral content, which might affect the taste of water. Long-term consumption of water with high TDS might lead to mineral imbalances and potential health issues. Higher levels of hardness, primarily due to calcium and magnesium, might cause scaling in pipes and appliances. It doesn’t pose direct health risks but can impact the efficiency and longevity of plumbing systems and water-dependent appliances. Water with high salinity might taste salty and could lead to dehydration if consumed regularly. Excessive salinity doesn’t directly cause health issues but can affect the water’s palatability. Higher COD levels suggest an increased presence of organic pollutants, impacting the water’s oxygen-consuming capacity. Prolonged exposure to high COD might lead to health issues and affect aquatic life in water bodies. Presence coli forms indicates potential contamination from various sources. Consuming water containing coliform may lead to gastrointestinal illnesses. E. coli presence is a strong indicator of fecal contamination, signifying potential exposure to harmful pathogens that can cause severe gastrointestinal illnesses and other health complications.

Guidelines for Corrective Actions

pH Correction:

  • For pH levels outside the range of 6.5 to 8.5, corrective measures include:
    • Soda Ash (Sodium Carbonate): Adding soda ash can help raise the pH if it’s too low.
    • Sodium Hydroxide: Also known as caustic soda, it can be used to increase pH levels.
    • Acid Injection or Neutralizing Filter: These methods can be employed to lower high pH levels.

Treatment for High TDS, Hardness, and COD:

  • High TDS (> 500 ppm): Implement water purifiers such as Reverse Osmosis (RO), Ion Exchange, or Activated Carbon Filters to reduce dissolved solids and improve water quality.
  • High Hardness (> 200 ppm): Employ RO-UF water purifiers and water softeners to alleviate hardness issues, preventing scale buildup and improving taste.
  • High COD (> 200 mg/l): Utilize water treatment methods appropriate for reducing organic pollutants and improving the water’s oxygen-demanding capacity.

Addressing the Presence of Coliform and E. Coli:

  • Presence of Coliform: Use chlorine, or other disinfection methods to eliminate coliform bacteria from water sources. Boiling water or UV filtration before consumption is strongly advised.
  • Presence of E. Coli: Employ boiling water or UV treatment or reliable filtration methods to ensure elimination of E. Coli, as it signifies potential fecal contamination.


Ensuring access to safe and potable drinking water is fundamental for the health and well-being of individuals and communities. Adherence to established water quality standards, as prescribed by organizations such as the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and the World Health Organization (WHO), is crucial. These standards serve as essential benchmarks to evaluate and maintain water quality, safeguarding against potential health risks associated with water contamination. Seeking professional assistance is strongly recommended for the improvement and maintenance of water quality. Trained experts and professionals in the field can provide valuable insights, conduct thorough assessments, and recommend suitable corrective measures and purification methods tailored to specific water quality issues.

Disclaimer: The information provided in this booklet is for educational purposes only and aims to offer general guidance on water quality parameters, corrective measures, and purification methods. It is essential to recognize that water quality can vary based on regional factors and sources. Users are encouraged to seek advice from qualified professionals for tailored recommendations and to adhere to local regulations. The content does not serve as a substitute for individualized expert consultation and is not intended for legal or medicolegal purposes. Users should exercise discretion in applying the information and are responsible for their actions or decisions based on the contents herein. No liability is assumed for the use or misuse of the provided information.